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New Study Examines Gender Differences in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Among Military Personne

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Journal of Women's Health

 

A study of U.S. Navy healthcare personnel has shown that when comparing the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among women and men who had similar deployment experiences, and especially combat experience, the risk of PTSD was significantly higher among women. PTSD risk rose for both men and women with an increasing number of combat exposures, as reported in Journal of Women's Health, a peer-reviewed publication from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers. The article is available free on the Journal of Women's Health website until April 1, 2017.

 

“Smart” genetic library – making disease diagnosis much easier

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STAT1 Mutations

 

Hiroshima University finds way to determine disease-causing mutations.

Researchers at Hiroshima University have developed a smart genetic reference library for locating and weeding out disease-causing mutations in populations. The technique and database, developed by Dr. Satoshi Okada, of HU’s Graduate School of Biomedical & Health Sciences, has successfully estimated naturally occurring rare-variants in the STAT1 gene – and determined the diseases that would result. Using alanine scanning – a method for assessing the functional potential of genes, this study, the first of its kind, should assist doctors in diagnosing primary-immunodeficiency in patients.

 

Biosimilar of Costly Inflammatory Bowel Disease Therapy Found Safe and Effective

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Treatment of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis has been greatly improved by the introduction of biologic therapies such as infliximab (which targets tumour necrosis factor alpha), but at considerable cost. A recent analysis of results from 11 published studies including 829 patients shows that a new and lower-cost biosimilar for infliximab-called CT-P13 (Remsima/Inflectra)-has excellent clinical efficacy and safety. Biosimilars are highly similar versions of complex biologic therapies. CT-P13 has been recently approved in the United States, the European Union, Australia, Canada, Japan, and many other countries.

 

The functional origin of dinosaur bipedalism: Cumulative evidence from bipedally inclined reptiles and disinclined mammals

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Bipedalism is a trait basal to, and widespread among, dinosaurs. It has been previously argued that bipedalism arose in the ancestors of dinosaurs for the function of freeing the forelimbs to serve as predatory weapons. However, this argument does not explain why bipedalism was retained among numerous herbivorous groups of dinosaurs. We argue that bipedalism arose in the dinosaur line for the purpose of enhanced cursoriality. Modern facultatively bipedal lizards offer an analog for the first stages in the evolution of dinosaurian bipedalism. Many extant lizards assume a bipedal stance while attempting to flee predators at maximum speed. Bipedalism, when combined with a caudofemoralis musculature, has cursorial advantages because the caudofemoralis provides a greater source of propulsion to the hindlimbs than is generally available to the forelimbs. That cursorial advantage explains the relative abundance of cursorial facultative bipeds and obligate bipeds among fossil diapsids and the relative scarcity of either among mammals. Having lost their caudofemoralis in the Permian, perhaps in the context of adapting to a fossorial lifestyle, the mammalian line has been disinclined towards bipedalism, but, having never lost the caudofemoralis of their ancestors, cursorial avemetatarsalians (bird-line archosaurs) were naturally inclined towards bipedalism.

 

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtbi.2017.02.032

 

 

Why is the giant panda black and white?

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Although the external appearances of most mammals are drab browns and grays used to match their backgrounds, certain species stand out as exceptions, perhaps the most notable being the giant panda. Using a comparative phylogenetic approach, we examined associations between different pelage regions and socioecological variables across carnivores and ursid subspecies to shed light on the giant panda’s black and white pelage coloration. Analyses of fur color and background environments suggest that the giant panda’s white face, nape, dorsum, flank, belly, and rump are adapted for crypsis against a snowy background, whereas its black shoulders and legs are adapted for crypsis in shade. Dark markings on the head are not used in crypsis, however, but in communication: Dark ears may be involved with signaling intent about ferocity whereas dark eye marks may serve in individual recognition. There is no compelling support for their fur color being involved in temperature regulation, disrupting the animal’s outline, or in reducing eye glare. We infer that the giant panda’s unique pelage coloration serves a constellation of functions that enable it to match its background in different environments and to communicate using facial features.

 

 

 

Rheumatoid arthritis: New treatment option for difficult-to-treat patients

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Rheumatoid arthritis: New treatment option for difficult-to-treat patients

 

Between 3 and 5% of the population suffer from a form of inflammatory rheumatism. It affects approximately 250,000 – 400,000 people in Austria. Rheumatoid arthritis is one of the commonest and also the most dangerous forms of this inflammatory rheumatic disease. Around 30% of patients achieve remission, that is to say successful control of symptoms, after just one or two years. However, despite frequent changes in treatment, many other patients have to endure the active form of the disease on an ongoing basis. A multicentre, multinational study headed up by rheumatologist Daniel Aletaha of MedUni Vienna as principal investigator has now shown that a new drug (sirukumab) is a very promising treatment option for these "refractory" patients. The study has now been published in the world-leading journal "The Lancet".

 

Global priority list of antibiotic-resistant bacteria to guide research, discovery, and development of new antibiotics

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The World Health Organization was requested by Member States to develop a global priority pathogens list (global PPL) of antibiotic-resistant bacteria to help in prioritizing the research and development (R&D) of new and effective antibiotic treatments. To date, the selection of pathogens for R&D activities has been largely guided by small and large pharmaceutical companies according to a variety of parameters, such as perceived/unmet medical need, pressure of investors, market size, scientific discovery potential, and availability of specific technologies. Previous PPLs, issued by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention .

 

Read more on: http://www.who.int/medicines/publications/WHO-PPL-Short_Summary_25Feb-ET_NM_WHO.pdf?ua=1

 

Use of Opioid Pain Medications May Affect Liver Transplant Patients’ Survival

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An analysis of nearly 30,000 patients undergoing liver transplantation in the United States between 2008 and 2014 found elevated death and organ loss rates in the first 5 years after transplantation among recipients with the highest use of opioid pain medications while on the waiting list. Higher risks mainly emerged after the first transplant anniversary, a pattern that may in part reflect sustained opioid use. Sixty five percent of those with the highest level of opioid use on the waiting list continued moderate to high level use in the first year after transplantation.

 

New autoimmune endocrine disease triggered by thymomas

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New autoimmune disease triggered by thymomas

 

A Japanese research group has discovered that a newly-identified autoimmune endocrine disease that leads to hypopituitarism is caused by thymomas (a type of tumor originating from the thymic gland). These underlying mechanisms could help to understand and develop a treatment for similar autoimmune diseases. These findings were published on February 20 in the online edition of Scientific Reports. The research group was led by Associate Professor TAKAHASHI Yutaka, Research Fellow BANDO Hironori, and Associate Professor IGUCHI Genzo in Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine.

 

Sickle cell disease: remission of the signs of the disease in the first patient in the world treated with gene therapy

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Sickle_Cells

A team led by Pr. Marina Cavazzana conducted at Necker Children's Hospital, AP-HP and the Imagine Institute (AP-HP / Inserm / Université Paris Descartes) in October 2014 gene therapy in the context of a phase I clinical trial / II in a patient 13 years with severe sickle cell disease. Conducted in collaboration with Pr. Philippe Leboulch (CEA / University Faculties of Medicine of Paris-Sud and Harvard University) who developed the vector used and directed preclinical studies, this innovative treatment allowed complete remission of clinical signs of disease and correction of biological signs. The results are published on March 2nd 2017 in the New England Jounal of Medicine.

 

New study reveals air pollution can alter the effectiveness of antibiotics and increases the potential of disease

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Streptococcus pneumoniae with black carbon

 

Interdisciplinary research at the University of Leicester has explored the impact of black carbon on bacteria in the respiratory tract .Researchers from the University of Leicester have for the first time discovered that bacteria that cause respiratory infections are directly affected by air pollution - increasing the potential for infection and changing the effectiveness of antibiotic treatment. The interdisciplinary study, which has been published in the journal Environmental Microbiology, has important implications for the treatment of infectious diseases, which are known to be increased in areas with high levels of air pollution.

 
 
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