Articoli filtrati per data: Mercoledì, 29 Marzo 2017
Mercoledì, 29 Marzo 2017 11:13

Un hub per la scienza del patrimonio culturale

Prende il via la fase preparatoria dell’infrastruttura di ricerca europea per la scienza applicata al patrimonio culturale: E-RIHS PP - European Research Infrastructure for Heritage Science Preparatory Phase. Firenze candidata a ospitare la sede centrale europea. Il progetto è finanziato dall’Ue e guidato dal Cnr, con il patrocinio del Comune di Firenze e della Regione Toscana e con il supporto della Fondazione Cassa di Risparmio di Firenze

 

Si è tenuto oggi a Firenze, presso la Sala Capitolare della Caserma Redi (ex Convento del Maglio), il workshop internazionale ‘Towards a European Research Infrastructure for Heritage Science’, evento di avvio della fase preparatoria ‘E-RIHS PP - European Research Infrastructure for Heritage Science Preparatory Phase’, l’infrastruttura di ricerca europea per la scienza del patrimonio, unico dei sei nuovi progetti entrati nella Roadmap ESFRI (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructure) nel 2016 a guida italiana. Per questo avvio la Commissione Europea ha approvato un finanziamento di 4 milioni di euro sul programma di ricerca e sviluppo Horizon 2020. Il progetto è finanziato dall’Ue e sostenuto da Miur, Mibact, Mise, patrocinato da Comune di Firenze e Regione Toscana, con il supporto della Fondazione Cassa di Risparmio di Firenze che si è impegnata a mettere a disposizione l’immobile (cioè la Caserma Redi) nel caso Firenze diventi la sede permanente.

Pubblicato in Eventi

 

Con l'aumento della produzione zootecnica, per soddisfare le esigenze di una popolazione mondiale in crescita, è cresciuta a dismisura anche la somministrazione di antibiotici a bovini, suini e polli negli allevamenti di tipo intensivo. Si tratta di una pratica ancora vietata in Europa, ma praticata senza divieti in Cina e Stati Uniti. L’impiego è normalmente previsto per contenere infezioni e altre malattie fra capi che vivono fra di loro a stretto contatto, ma la FDA denuncia anche un uso superfluo per accelerare la crescita della muscolatura, in particolare nei bovini. Una stima parla addirittura dell'80 % di produzione di antibiotici negli Stati Uniti destinata all'allevamento.  Questa tendenza sta facendo in modo che aumenti la resistenza dei batteri agli antibiotici all'interno del suolo, comportando rischi sulla reale efficacia di questi farmaci. Il loro impiego massiccio infatti svolge un 'azione sul suolo, ed in particolare sui microrganismi, che non va sottovalutata.

Pubblicato in Ambiente

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What drives bacterial strain diversity in the gut? Although there are a number of possible explanations, a recent opinion piece published in TRENDs in Microbiology by Dr Pauline Scanlan, a Royal Society – Science Foundation Ireland Research Fellow at the APC Microbiome Institute, University College Cork, addresses one potentially important and overlooked aspect of this unresolved question. The human gut is host to an incredible diversity of microbes collectively known as the gut microbiome. Our gut microbiomes interact with us, their human hosts, to perform a myriad of crucial functions ranging from digestion of food to protection against pathogens. Whilst superficially it may seem that the microbes inhabiting the human gut are stable and broadly similar between individuals, recent advances in sequencing technology that allow for high-level resolution investigations have shown that our gut microbiomes are dynamic, capable of rapid evolution and unique to each individual in terms of bacterial species and strain diversity. This unique inter-individual variation is of crucial importance as we know that differences in bacterial strain diversity within species can have a range of positive or negative consequences for the human host – for example some strains of a given bacteria are harmless whilst another strain of the same bacterial species could kill you.  A classic example of this is different strains of the gut bacterium Escherichia coli - E. coli Nissle 1917 is used as a probiotic and E. coli O157:H7 has been responsible for a number of deadly food-borne pathogen outbreaks. Therefore a better understanding of what drives bacterial strain diversity is not just fundamental to our understanding of the ecology and evolution of microbes but is also highly relevant for improvements in human health and disease prevention.

Pubblicato in Scienceonline

 

High concentrations of the stress hormone, Cortisol, in the body affect important DNA processes and increase the risk of long-term psychological consequences. These relationships are evident in a study from the Sahlgrenska Academy on patients with Cushing’s Syndrome, but the findings also open the door for new treatment strategies for other stress-related conditions such as anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress. “If these results can be verified and repeated in other studies, they would have significance for future possibilities for treating stress-induced psychological consequences,” says Camilla Glad, postdoctoral researcher at the Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition.

Pubblicato in Scienceonline

The schematic illustration of the intracellular delivery of antiviral siRNA against influenza A virus using SiO2-coated hybrid capsules.

Scientists from Tomsk Polytechnic University together with their colleagues from St. Petersburg and London have elaborated a new approach to deliver anti-viral RNAi to target cells against H1N1 influenza virus infection. Drug encapsulating via a combination of layer-by-layer technique and sol-gel chemistry allows beating swine flu at the gene level. The first test showed an 80% drop in virus protein synthesis. A research was conducted by scientists from the Novel Dosage Laboratory, RASA Center at TPU, Pavlov First Saint Petersburg State Medical University, Research Institute of Influenza of Ministry of Healthcare of the Russian Federation and Queen Mary University of London School of Engineering and Materials Science. Scientists from Gorbacheva Research Institute of Pediatric Hematology and Transplantation also took an active part in the research.

Pubblicato in Scienceonline

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Ecologists at the UK-based Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH) have led a study which informs optimal strategies for control of devastating midge-borne diseases like bluetongue and Schmallenberg virus that affect cattle and sheep in the UK and beyond. Adult female midges (males do not bite) are responsible for infecting farm animals with numerous diseases and are active and abundant between Spring and Autumn. This activity period varies across the UK and Europe, and the severity of disease is linked to how many midges occur at peak season. Essential movements of animals between premises and vaccination campaigns can only occur in the European Union within the Seasonal Free Vector Period over winter, when adult midges are absent or less active and don’t bite animals and pass on infection.

Pubblicato in Scienceonline

 

Scienzaonline con sottotitolo Sciencenew  - Periodico
Autorizzazioni del Tribunale di Roma – diffusioni:
telematica quotidiana 229/2006 del 08/06/2006
mensile per mezzo stampa 293/2003 del 07/07/2003
Scienceonline, Autorizzazione del Tribunale di Roma 228/2006 del 29/05/06
Pubblicato a Roma – Via A. De Viti de Marco, 50 – Direttore Responsabile Guido Donati

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