Articoli filtrati per data: Lunedì, 06 Marzo 2017

 

Whether it involves stopping at a traffic light or diving into freezing water to save someone from drowning: many of our everyday problems require snap decisions in the face of uncertainty. When making decisions, it has been suggested that neurochemicals rapidly flood the brain and signal how uncertain somebody is about a choice. Researchers from the University of Amsterdam (UvA) and the University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf have now found evidence of such signalling using measurements of human pupil size. Their results are published in the latest edition of Nature Communications.

Pubblicato in Scienceonline

 

Journal of Women's Health

 

A study of U.S. Navy healthcare personnel has shown that when comparing the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among women and men who had similar deployment experiences, and especially combat experience, the risk of PTSD was significantly higher among women. PTSD risk rose for both men and women with an increasing number of combat exposures, as reported in Journal of Women's Health, a peer-reviewed publication from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers. The article is available free on the Journal of Women's Health website until April 1, 2017.

Pubblicato in Scienceonline

STAT1 Mutations

 

Hiroshima University finds way to determine disease-causing mutations.

Researchers at Hiroshima University have developed a smart genetic reference library for locating and weeding out disease-causing mutations in populations. The technique and database, developed by Dr. Satoshi Okada, of HU’s Graduate School of Biomedical & Health Sciences, has successfully estimated naturally occurring rare-variants in the STAT1 gene – and determined the diseases that would result. Using alanine scanning – a method for assessing the functional potential of genes, this study, the first of its kind, should assist doctors in diagnosing primary-immunodeficiency in patients.

Pubblicato in Scienceonline

 

Treatment of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis has been greatly improved by the introduction of biologic therapies such as infliximab (which targets tumour necrosis factor alpha), but at considerable cost. A recent analysis of results from 11 published studies including 829 patients shows that a new and lower-cost biosimilar for infliximab-called CT-P13 (Remsima/Inflectra)-has excellent clinical efficacy and safety. Biosimilars are highly similar versions of complex biologic therapies. CT-P13 has been recently approved in the United States, the European Union, Australia, Canada, Japan, and many other countries.

Pubblicato in Scienceonline

Un team di ricercatori di Istituto di informatica e telematica del Cnr, Mit, Cornell University e Uber ha utilizzato i big data per predirne l’effetto in 30 città: lo studio potrebbe fornire indicazioni per trasformare il futuro del trasporto a livello globale. Milano ha un potenziale di condivisione dei viaggi cinque volte maggiore di Roma. A livello globale, ai primi posti New York e Vienna.  La ricerca pubblicata su Nature Scientific Reports.

Un gruppo di ricercatori dell’Istituto di informatica e telematica del Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche (Iit-Cnr), del Mit, della Cornell University e della società Uber ha utilizzato una quantità senza precedenti di dati sulla mobilità per predire le potenzialità del ride-sharing in 30 città globali. Attraverso l’analisi di oltre 200 milioni di viaggi di taxi effettuati a New York, Singapore, San Francisco e Vienna, i ricercatori hanno scoperto le leggi della mobilità condivisa che possono essere applicate a qualsiasi città. La ricerca, pubblicata nel numero di marzo 2017 della rivista Nature Scientific Reports, potrebbe fornire indicazioni per trasformare il futuro del trasporto a livello globale.

Pubblicato in Etica
Lunedì, 06 Marzo 2017 08:34

Il popolo dei Dolmen siciliani

Cista dolmenica a Butera, Sicilia

 

Nell'antica età del bronzo (fine III millennio a.C.) si diffusero in Europa grandi costruzioni in pietra, i dolmen, rinvenuti da poco anche in Sicilia, seppure con dimensioni più ridotte. Dei loro costruttori si conosce quasi nulla, ma lo studio di due archeologi preistorici siciliani, Salvo Piccolo e Alessandro Bonfanti, tenta  di dissolvere la nebbia che aleggia sul popolo che li ha realizzati nella nostra isola più grande. Da anni, infatti, i due studiosi indagano i contesti che gravitano sui piccoli megaliti siciliani, giungendo a evidenti risultati: “Dolmen, menhir e cromlech – dice Piccolo – sono monumenti preistorici in pietra diffusi un po' ovunque in Europa. I primi, sono costituiti da due pilastri e un lastrone orizzontale sovrapposto, dentro i quali si inumavano i defunti; i secondi erano  segnacoli funerari, allineati e infissi verticalmente nel terreno a indicare, probabilmente, la via siderale per l'aldilà (ad esempio i menhir di Carnac, in Francia). I cromlech, invece, erano costruzioni di forma circolare al cui interno si celebravano riti arcani sollecitati dalle osservazioni astrali. Com'è facile intuire si trattava di architetture parecchio elaborate, testimoni di conoscenze astronomiche sorprendenti che ben si prestavano agli esoterismi religiosi”.

 

Pubblicato in Paleontologia

 

Bipedalism is a trait basal to, and widespread among, dinosaurs. It has been previously argued that bipedalism arose in the ancestors of dinosaurs for the function of freeing the forelimbs to serve as predatory weapons. However, this argument does not explain why bipedalism was retained among numerous herbivorous groups of dinosaurs. We argue that bipedalism arose in the dinosaur line for the purpose of enhanced cursoriality. Modern facultatively bipedal lizards offer an analog for the first stages in the evolution of dinosaurian bipedalism. Many extant lizards assume a bipedal stance while attempting to flee predators at maximum speed. Bipedalism, when combined with a caudofemoralis musculature, has cursorial advantages because the caudofemoralis provides a greater source of propulsion to the hindlimbs than is generally available to the forelimbs. That cursorial advantage explains the relative abundance of cursorial facultative bipeds and obligate bipeds among fossil diapsids and the relative scarcity of either among mammals. Having lost their caudofemoralis in the Permian, perhaps in the context of adapting to a fossorial lifestyle, the mammalian line has been disinclined towards bipedalism, but, having never lost the caudofemoralis of their ancestors, cursorial avemetatarsalians (bird-line archosaurs) were naturally inclined towards bipedalism.

 

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtbi.2017.02.032

 

Pubblicato in Scienceonline
Lunedì, 06 Marzo 2017 08:23

Why is the giant panda black and white?

Although the external appearances of most mammals are drab browns and grays used to match their backgrounds, certain species stand out as exceptions, perhaps the most notable being the giant panda. Using a comparative phylogenetic approach, we examined associations between different pelage regions and socioecological variables across carnivores and ursid subspecies to shed light on the giant panda’s black and white pelage coloration. Analyses of fur color and background environments suggest that the giant panda’s white face, nape, dorsum, flank, belly, and rump are adapted for crypsis against a snowy background, whereas its black shoulders and legs are adapted for crypsis in shade. Dark markings on the head are not used in crypsis, however, but in communication: Dark ears may be involved with signaling intent about ferocity whereas dark eye marks may serve in individual recognition. There is no compelling support for their fur color being involved in temperature regulation, disrupting the animal’s outline, or in reducing eye glare. We infer that the giant panda’s unique pelage coloration serves a constellation of functions that enable it to match its background in different environments and to communicate using facial features.

 

 

Pubblicato in Scienceonline

 

Scienzaonline con sottotitolo Sciencenew  - Periodico
Autorizzazioni del Tribunale di Roma – diffusioni:
telematica quotidiana 229/2006 del 08/06/2006
mensile per mezzo stampa 293/2003 del 07/07/2003
Scienceonline, Autorizzazione del Tribunale di Roma 228/2006 del 29/05/06
Pubblicato a Roma – Via A. De Viti de Marco, 50 – Direttore Responsabile Guido Donati

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